Sutter egészség fogyás sacramento, Donner-társaság

Donner Party

Background[ edit ] An encampment of tents and covered wagons on the Humboldt River in Sutter egészség fogyás sacramento, During the s, the United States saw a dramatic increase in settlers who left their homes in the east to resettle in the Oregon Territory or California, which at the time were only accessible by a very long sea voyage or a daunting overland journey across the American frontier.

Some, such as Patrick Breen, saw California as a place where they would be free to live in a fully Catholic culture; [2] others were attracted to the West's burgeoning economic opportunities or inspired by the idea of manifest destinythe belief that the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans belonged to European Americans and that they should settle it.

Hastings stayed at the fort to persuade travelers to turn south on his route.

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This mountain range has  distinct peaks over 12, feet 3, m high [10] which, because of their height and proximity to the Pacific Ocean, receive more snow than most other ranges in North America. The eastern side of the range is also notoriously steep. Traveling during the right time of year was also critical to ensuring that horses and oxen had enough spring grass to eat.

Donner-társaság

With him were his year-old wife Tamsen, their three daughters Frances 6Georgia 4 dr robinson san antonio tx fogyás, sutter egészség fogyás sacramento Eliza 3and George's daughters from a previous marriage: Elitha 14 and Leanna George's younger brother Jacob 56 also joined the party with his wife Elizabeth 45teenaged stepsons Solomon Hook 14 and William Hook 12and five children: George 9Mary 7Isaac 6Lewis 4and Samuel 1.

Reeda year-old native of Ireland, settled in Illinois in He was accompanied by his wife Margret 32step-daughter Virginia 13daughter Martha Jane "Patty", sutter egészség fogyás sacramentosons James and Thomas 5 and 3and Sarah Keyes, Margret Reed's year-old mother, who was in the advanced stages of consumption tuberculosis [19] and died on May 28; she was buried by the side of the trail. Baylis Williams 24 went along as handyman and his sister, Eliza 25as the family's cook.

They had been delayed by rain and a rising river, but Tamsen Donner wrote to a friend in Springfield, "indeed, if I do not experience something far worse than I have yet done, I shall say the trouble is all in getting started".

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Levinah Murphy 37a widow from Tennessee, headed a family of thirteen. Levinah's two married daughters and their families also came along: Sarah Murphy Foster 19her husband William M. William H. Eddy 28a carriage maker from Illinois, brought his wife Eleanor 25 and their two children, James 3 and Margaret 1. Their neighbor, year-old bachelor Patrick Dolan, traveled with them. An older man named Hardkoop rode with them.

Az események háttere[ szerkesztés ] Sátrak és szekerek a Humboldt sutter egészség fogyás sacramento partján Nevadában ben Az es években számos ember indult el Amerikában nyugatra, hogy letelepedjen Oregon vagy Kalifornia állam területén. Abban az időben ezek csak nagyon hosszú tengeri úton keresztül, vagy a kontinensen át, kalandos úton voltak megközelíthetőek. Néhányan úgy látták Kaliforniát, mint egy olyan helyet, ahol szabadon álhatnak a keresztény vallás tanításai alapján. Másoknak a gazdasági lehetőségek voltak vonzóak, ismét mások pedig az amerikai doktrína alapján úgy vélték, hogy a két óceán közti szárazföld az európai embereket illeti, és ez motiválta őket. A legtöbb társzekér az Oregon Trail nevű útvonalat követte, amely a Missouri állambeli Independence-ből indult, keresztül a Nagy Amerikai Vízválasztón, mely út során naponta átlagosan 24 km-t lehetett haladni.

Luke Halloran, a young man who seemed to get sicker with consumption every day, was passed from family to family as none could spare the time or resources to care for him. On July 12, the Reeds and Donners were given one of them.

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He also claimed to have "worked out a new and better road to California", and said he would be waiting at Fort Bridger to guide the migrants along the new cutoff.

A smaller group opted to head for Fort Bridger and needed a leader.

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Most of the younger men in the group were European immigrants and not considered to be ideal leaders. James Reed had lived in the U. Additionally, the party had little knowledge about how to interact with Native Americans.

Donner Party

He saw the first part of the trail and was concerned that it would be difficult for the wagons in the Donner group, especially with so many women and children.

He returned to Blacks Fork to leave letters warning several members sutter egészség fogyás sacramento the group not to take Hastings's shortcut.

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Water would be easy to omni a fogyáshoz along the way, although a couple of days crossing a 30—mile 48—64 km dry lake bed would be necessary. Reed was very impressed with this information and advocated for the Hastings Cutoff. None of the party received Bryant's letters warning them to avoid Hastings's route at all costs; in his diary account, Bryant states his conviction that Bridger deliberately concealed the letters, a view shared by Reed in his later testimony.

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Clyman warned Reed not to take the Hastings Cutoff, telling him that wagons would not be able to make it and that Hastings's information was inaccurate.

Donner hired a replacement driver, and the company was joined by the McCutcheon family, consisting of sutter egészség fogyás sacramento William, his year-old wife Amanda, their two-year-old daughter Harriet, and a year-old named Jean Baptiste Trudeau from New Mexico, who claimed to have knowledge of the Native Americans and terrain on the way to California.

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The party turned south to follow the Hastings Cutoff. Within days, they found the terrain to be much more difficult than described.

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Drivers were forced to lock the wheels of their wagons to prevent them from rolling down steep inclines. Several years of traffic on the main Oregon Trail had left an easy and obvious path, whereas the Cutoff was more difficult to find.

Hastings wrote directions and left letters stuck to trees.

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